Atlantic Resolve 2016

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Part 2 - "Militia Eagles"

Introduction

It was a time a question whether ANG F-15s would come to Frisian Flag. Only a few weeks before it was announced that for the second time Air National Guard F-15 Eagles were going to take part in Frisian Flag. Just like in 2015, the Eagles are for a period of half a year in Europe as part of a Theatre Support Package under Operation Atlantic Resolve. This in response to the deteriorating relationship with Russia. The aircraft arrived in two groups of six, respectively on the 4th and 6th of April 2016. The first group was scheduled for March 31, with a fallback date on April 1. But because of bad weather and high waves the first group crossed the Atlantic Ocean to RAF Lakenheath finally on Saturday the 2nd of April. On Monday the 4th of April they arrived at Leeuwarden. Was the landing a little bit later than the present photographers had the aircraft full with sun. The four on April 6 came directly from the USA and arrived around 18:00 hours also without sun just after the passage of a rain front. Five aircraft were from the Massachusetts ANG and three from the California ANG. On April 28 the Eagles left for Graf Ignatievo in Bulgaria. Recently the F-15s were on an exercise in Ämari AB in Estonia. Responsible for the deployment is the 131st Expeditionairy Fighter Squadron. This is a composite unit led by the Massachusetts ANG. In addition to the ANG personnel also regular USAFE personnel are present. After three months the California ANG takes over the leadership.

Complement FULL STOP 2nd Quarter 2015

The air defense role of the Eagles, updates and current units, were already scrutinized. The magazine Combat Aircraft of September 2015 about the Massachusetts ANG contained additional information on the Air Defence Eagles. Interestingly to add the following additions. 
Because of the smaller number of purchased F-22A Raptors than planned, the Eagle is expected to remain in service as long as the F-22A. The F-22 and F-15 units have integrated their tactics, so that they can co-operate for the attainment of the air superiority. The Eagles now have an average of 9,000 flight hours. Boeing is now testing a F-15 structural with the aim that the aircraft can keep up to eight thousands flight hours. In October 2003 the installation started of the Pratt & Whitney F100-PW-220E engines in the ANG Eagles. The F-15Cs are equipped with the Multi-Functional Information Distribution System (MIDS), also known as the Fighter Data Link (FDL), or Fiddle. The Suite 5M Operational Flight Program Update (OFP) upgrade allows linking the AIM-9X Sidewinder with the Joint Helmet-Mounted Cueing System (JMHCS). The missile could then be fired at extreme (radical) corners, only to have the goal in sight and fire.

Radar

In the 90's about 180 Eagles were provided with the enhanced APG-63 (V). This was an analogue to digital upgrade. Later, in 2000, 18 F-15s from a squadron of the 3rd Wing at Elmendorf AFB, Alaska, were equipped with the APG-63 (V) 2 Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar. This resulted in the APG-63 (V) 3. The first unit that received the Eagles with (V) 3 was the 422nd TES OT at Nellis AFB from October 2010. This radar is now linked to the latest version of the AMRAAM AIM-120D. Currently some types of pods are also tested. The Florida ANG tests the AN / AAQ-33 Sniper pod for air to air identification. Also useful in combating drug-runners! The suite 6 Operational Flight Program (OFP) is a next standard with two new pods, the Legion pod and Talon HATE. The Legion pod is a new multi-function pod of Lockheed-Martin based on the IRST21 infrared search and tracking. It is a continuous development of the AN/AAS-42 from the F-14D Tomcat. Talon Hate is a Boeing pod for communication between the fourth and fifth generation fighters. The communication between the F-22 and other types is a problem. With his pod  the information from the APG-77 Raptor radar and ALR-94 electronic warfare system can be shared by the F-22. Whether or not this pod will be obtained there is a also a demand for a network system, wherein the F-22 also can communicate with the F-35 without disturbing the electronic stealth properties of the F-35.

Units

California ANG 144th FW/194th FS, Fresno IAP (International Airport)

The 409th FS had his origins at Hamilton Field, California, as an Operational Training Unit equipped with the P-39 Air Bras and P-40 Warhawks. In 1944 the squadron was equipped with the P-51D and lifted on November 7, 1945.

California Air National Guard

The 409th FS was again ge-reactivated and re-designated as the 194th Fighter Squadron on May 24,1946 and assigned to the California Air National Guard. The squadron was stationed at Naval Air Station Alameda. Federal recognition by the National Guard Bureau followed on June 25,1948 for the history, the honors and the colors of the 409th FS. The squadron was equipped with the P-51D Mustang and was assigned to the 144th Fighter Group, which was activated on June 2,1948. The 144th FG was part of the
61st Fighter Wing and was replaced on November 1,1950 by the 144th FW with the traditions of the 372nd Fighter Group. In 1949 the 194th and 144th moved to Hayward Air National Guard Base.
After the outbreak of the Korean War on June 26,1950 most ANG units were placed under federal authority and mobilized. The 144th FG remained in the ANG and was not reactivated. In 1951 the F-51Ds were exchanged for F-51Hs, recognized by the upper tail. The F-51H was designed for long-range escort fighter for the B-29. The replaced 
F-51Ds were needed as fighter-bombers in Korea. On 1 October, 1952 the 194th and 144th became a Fighter Interceptor Squadron / Wing and on 1 December a Fighter Bomber Squadron and Wing.

F-86

In 1954, after the Korean War, the 194th was equipped with the North American F-86A Sabre. With the arrival of the Sabre the squadron moved to Fresno Yosemite International Airport, followed in 1957 by the Wing. On July 7,1955 the 194th respectively the 144th became a Fighter Interceptor Squadron and Wing. The F-86A was a 'day hunter' and therefore the 144th stood on alert from dawn to dusk. The 194th FIS flew the F-86A to 31 March 1958. On April 1,1958 the switch was made to the F-86L, a midlife update of the F-86D. The F-86D / L had a radar and was an interceptor for all weather conditions. The F-86L could be guided to the target by SAGE computer-controlled Ground Control Interceptor (radar) sites. During those days painting was beautiful with dayglo planes and a chevron on the tail (see photo of 30558). The F-86L remained in service until June 30, 1964.

The A-version of the Sabre was the first jet of the 194th. The F-86A 91272 (49-1272) is now in the Air Park of Fresno.

F-86L 30558 (53-0558). 104th FIS CALIF ANG as it should with dayglo parts. [Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak].

F-102

On of July 1,1964 the 194th FIS was equipped with the F-102A Delta Dagger. In 1964 a substantial number of active Air Force F-102s was transferred to the ANG, the units came from Air Defence Command, PACAF and USAFE squadrons including the Spain-based 431st and 497th FIS. These Delta Daggers were replaced in 1970 by better-equipped aircraft, from the 496th FIS in Hahn, West Germany. The 20 for the 194th intended Daggers departed from Hahn on January 27, 1970. They were flown by 194th pilots from Hahn to California. Some of the older Daggers were already delivered  to the Greek and Turkish air forces in 1968-1969. The remaining old Daggers ended their life in storage on the AMARC. The former 496th FIS aircraft were all painted in SEA camouflage and were initially without any painting. In 1972 they were on the middle of the tail provided with white numbers 01-20 (01 and 02 for the TF-102As and 03-20 for the F-102As). The F-102As in serial sequence, with the exception of the 19 and 20. The reason could be that at arrival the codes were assigned, and that the numbers 19 and 20 only followed  somewhat later. On July 24,1974 the F-102 era ended. Ten aircraft still with a number of flight hours went to other ANG F-102 units. The remaining ten F-102s were put into storage at the MASDC. Three of the ex-Hahn F-102s were lost, two on March 10, 1971. They were replaced by two former Connecticut ANG aircraft. The third one was lost on July 27,1971. In January 1968 the name of Gaining Command switched from Air Defence Command in Aerospace Defense Command.

F-102A 56-1059 with 194th FIS on the tail, on static at Van Nuys on the 4th of July 1968. In 1969 this aircraft moved to the Hellenic Air Force. [Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

F-102A 56-1046/19 ex 194th FIS. When the 194th was equipped with the F-106 this aircraft moved to his colleagues of the 196th FIS California ANG. [Ontario, 11 August 1974, Collection M.D. Tabak]

F-102A 56-1061/04 from the 194th FIS at Fresno on November 1973.

F-106

On July 25, 1974, the F-106A / B Delta Dart was the successor of the Delta Dagger. The 194th received thirteen F-106A single-seaters and two F-106B trainers. Initially the painting was just a number code in the middle of the tail. In 1976  the numbers disappeared and the tail became red and white with a golden Californian bear and CALIFORNIA under the tail. On July 9, 1976, the 144th FIG was disbanded and then the 194th fell directly under the 144th FIW. 
As of October 1, 1979, the Air Defense task of Aerospace Defence Command  went to Tactical Air Command under the subdivision of Air Defence. This ADTAC became later the 1st Air Force in 1985. In 1982 the painting was changed to a defined black blue tail band featuring CALIFORNIA in black. The left band with the TAC logo and the right band with the squadron badge. In 1978 the strength was expanded with two additional As and in 1981-82 with five As, three former 84th FIS and two former 48th FIS. During the F-106 period one A was lost by a crash in 1979. On December 31, 1983, the flight operations with the Dart were officially ended by ADTAC. Delta Darts were divided into active air force ANG squadrons. Of these, six singles and a dual moved to the Florida ANG  in late 1983-early 1984. And a number of Darts ended at AMARC.

On the ramp of Fresno IAP, California, in October 1978 is F-106A 58-0791 in 1976 style markings. [©Volkert Jan van den Berg]

F-106B 57-2535 was parked on the same ramp. [©Volkert Jan van den Berg]

The 194th FIS participated in the William Tell Meet 1982 at Tyndall AFB in Florida in October 1982. F-106A 59-0020 returned from a morning mission. ©Volkert Jan van den Berg

F-106B 57-2523 was a visitor during the WTM1982. ©Volkert Jan van den Berg

F-4

As of October 1, 1984, the Dart was replaced by the F-4D Phantom II. The F-4Ds were from the 31st TFW at Homestead AFB (ZF tail code) and some came from other ANG units. The Phantoms were diverse camouflaged in SEA (Vietnam camouflage), European One (2x green and gray) and Air Defence gray. The Phantoms were initially without paint, the same paint was applied after several months as the F-106, a blue tail band containing CALIFORNIA now in white. In 1987 changed to a gray Griffin. Slowly about half of the Phantoms were camouflaged in Hill Gray (F-16-style). The F-4 period ended September 30, 1989. Some Ghosts went to the Michigan ANG, the rest should rest on the AMARC.

F-4D 65-0740 CALIFORNIA ANG in Vietnam camouflage. [April 1985, Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

At his homebase Fresno IAP F-4D 66-7668 on his way for a morning mission in October 1986. [©Volkert Jan van den Berg]

F-4D 65-0588 CALIFORNIA ANG with the Griffon badge on the tail.[Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

In Hill Gray camouflage (F-16-style) F-4D 65-0646. [February 1989, Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

F-4D 65-0611 on the ramp of Fresno IAP. This aircraft served with the 49TFW (10.1976), the 56TFW (10.1978) and the 31TFW (11.1979). It departed to AMARC as FP536 on July, 10,1990. [Collection Ton van Schaik]

As of October 1, 1984, the Dart was replaced by the F-4D Phantom II. The F-4Ds were from the 31st TFW at Homestead AFB (ZF tail code) and some came from other ANG units. The Phantoms were diverse camouflaged in SEA (Vietnam camouflage), European One (2x green and gray) and Air Defence gray. The Phantoms were initially without paint, the same paint was applied after several months as the F-106, a blue tail band containing CALIFORNIA now in white. In 1987 changed to a gray Griffin. Slowly about half of the Phantoms were camouflaged in Hill Gray (F-16-style). The F-4 period ended September 30, 1989. Some Ghosts went to the Michigan ANG, the rest should rest on the AMARC.

F-16

On April 10, 1989, the first F-16A Block 15 arrived, followed on April 13 by the first F-16B ADF. After that a few F-16A followed before the supply of the ADF version started. The F-16A / B was not really well equipped for air defense tasks. Therefore 270 were converted to F-16A / B ADF (Air Defense Fighter) recognizable by the four blade antennas on the nose that are part of the Advanced IFF system Friend or Foe (AIFF). The bubble layer of the tail of the A was a landmark. This version had an improved radar and was capable to fire the AIM-7 Sparrow and later the AIM-120. In addition, the ADF was in the left side of the nose provided with a searchlight for identification of an intercepted aircraft at night. On 13 May 1989 the B was seen with a black diving Californian condor on the tail, which is also applied to the current Eagles. F-16A 80-582 also had CALIFORNIA ANG in blue on the air intake in August 1989, later changed to black and then on the tail, and finally only CALIFORNIA. On October 1,1989, the conversion was completed for the F-16, and the alert status at Fresno was resumed. In 1991 the name of the base was changed  from Fresno Yosemite International Airport to Fresno Air National Guard Base.On March 16, 1992, the designations were changed to 194th Fighter Squadron / 144th Fighter Wing. As an intermediate layer between the wing and the squadron the 144th Operations Group was established which is responsible for flight operations. On June 1, 1992, the Gaining Command became the Air Combat Command under the 1st Air Force. In mid-1994 the ADFs were replaced by the F-16C / D Block 25 with a multi-role task. Ie besides air defense also fighter-bomber missions. After the end of  the Cold War, the Russian bomber threat was less. By shrinking the USAF many F-16C / Ds became available. As a result, the ANG ADFs were rejected and replaced by the multi-role F-16C / D. In October 2006 the first F-16 Block 32 arrived.  Over a period of eight month Fresno received 18 ex-Arkansas ANG and AFRC 944th FW Vipers  in total. With the arrival of the F-15 in 2013 most Vipers went to the Arizona ANG, the latter departed on November 7 of that year.

Mid-1994 the 194th FS received the F-16C/D block 25 with a multi-role task. F-16C 84-1282 at Fresno IAP. [Collection Volkert Jan van den Berg]

F-15

Around 2005 it was announced that Fresno was in the planning to receive the F-15. However, it took until 2013 before the Eagles arrived. The reason will lie in the structural problems causing a large number of  F-15s that was phased out in 2008-2010. With the arrival of the F-15s at Fresno, there are now a total of five ANG F-15 squadrons. On the west coast the 123rd FS Oregon ANG in the north, and the California ANG in the south. On the east coast the Massachusetts ANG in the north, with the Louisiana ANG and Florida ANG  in the south. The first four former Montana F-15s arrived in June 2013, these four were initially used to train maintenance staff. Conversion of the pilots took place at USAF F-15 Training Wing, the 173rd FW Oregon ANG at Klamath Falls. The unit had plenty of instructors but too little Eagles. To assist with retraining four F-15s from California, plus 120 technicians to gain experience with F-15 flight operations, were detached for seven months to Klamath Falls. The last 18 Viper pilots were retrained and completed the conversion to the Eagle in early 2016. The other Eagles were delivered in October 2013 to May 2014. A total of 21, 18 PAA (Primary Aircraft Authorized) and three BAI (Backup Aircraft Inventory). Most Eagles are former Montana ANG ones and five are from the 65th AGRS (Aggressor Squadron) at Nellis AFB which was disbanded. These planes were in the pretty Aggressor schemes where they flew in for some time. The F-15s are equipped with the original F-15 radar, the APG-63 (V) 0, the improved (V) 1 and (V) 3 Active Electronically Scanned Array (ASEA) radar. Ultimately, it is intended that all Eagles will be equipped with the (V) 3. In due course I think that ultimately the FY78 F-15s will be replaced by the F-15s from the 493rd FS when RAF Lakenheath is equipped with the F-35.

F-15C in two-tone brown Snake camouflage. It flew with the 65th AGRS at Nellis AFB in the agressor role. [Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

On approach F-15C 80-0018 and two other ones at Leeuwarden AB during Frisian Flag 2016. [©Volkert Jan van den Berg]

F-15C 84-0014 144FW. [©Volkert Jan van den Berg]

F-15D 85-0129. [©Volkert Jan van den Berg]

T-33A

During the end of its long and productive service, the T-33A Shooting Star served in the liaison, target towing or training roles in many Air National Guard units around the US. 

T-33A 53-5262 in polished bare metal on the ramp of Fresno in October 1978. [©Volkert Jan van den Berg]

53-5953 in grey was parked on the same ramp in October 1978. [©Volkert Jan van den Berg]

Eight years later in October 1986 the unit still had this T-33A 53-5944 operational. [©Volkert Jan van den Berg]

Massachusetts ANG 104th FW, 131st FS, Barnes Air National Guard Base

The unit was established on August 22, 1942, as the 333rd Fighter Squadron. Equipped with the P-39 and P-51D in 1944, it was disbanded on January 12, 1946. The 333rd was responsible for the air defense of the islands of Hawaii. The unit was later assigned to the 318th Fighter Group and was deployed in the Marianas and the Ryukyus. The 333rd FS was re-designated as the 131st Fighter Squadron and added on May 24, 1946, to the Massachusetts National Guard. The squadron was stationed at Barnes Municipal Airport Westfield, Massachusetts. The 131st was under the 102nd Fighter Group and received federal approval on 24 February 1947. Their equipment consisted of the P-47 Thunderbolts. In 1950, the 102nd FG was assigned to the 102th Fighter Wing, the wing replaced the 67th FW. After the outbreak of the Korean War on June 26, 1950, most ANG units were placed under federal authority and mobilized. The 131st FS remained in the Massachusetts ANG and was not reactivated. In 1951 the F-47Ns were put in storage at Davis Monthan and the 131st received the F-51H. The mission of the 131st was the air defense of Massachusetts. This task designation was changed on August 16, 1952, into the 131st Fighter Interceptor Squadron. From March 1, 1953, there were two F-51Hs and five pilots placed on alert.

F-86H

F-86H 53-1231 MA ANG without colour at Andrews AFB. [5 July 1964, Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

F-86H 0-22017 (52-2017) ex MA ANG in storage at MASDC, Davis-Monthan AFB. In the back F-86L 0-30558 from the 194th FIS California ANG. [28 July 1966, Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

The Air Defence mission was ended on November 10, 1958, when the MA ANG came under the TAC Tactical Air Command as the 131st Tactical Fighter Squadron (Day). And equipped with the North American F-86H Sabre, the fighter bomber version of the Sabre, with the distinctive feature compared to the fighter version a thicker trunk. During the summer of 1961, the Berlin Wall was built, which resulted in the Berlin crisis. The 131st TFS was informed on August 16, 1961, that it would be placed under federal authority and mobilized. On 1 October the 131st was assigned to the 102nd TFW and stationed at Otis AFB. The 102nd was strengthening USAFE and was stationed at Phalsbourg-Bourscheid Air Base in France. The wing transferred between 28-30 October a total of 82 Sabres to France. To support the wing they  had access to two C-47s and six T-33As. The task was to provide close air support and air interdiction to NATO ground troops. The Sabres were on 24/7 alert. On 5 December the 131st went to Wheelus AB in Libya for shooting training. It has also participated in several exercises including at Leck in northern Germany.On May 7, 1962, the 17th Air Force USAFE decided that the 102nd was no longer necessary and the wing then moved back to the US in July 1962. Regular staff and volunteers from the ANG formed the 480th TFS of the newly formed 366th TFW. The last ANG aircraft departed on July 20. The 480th is now back in Europe at Spangdahlem. On August 31, 1962, the unit was again assigned to the MA ANG. The Around October 31, 1962, it became the 131st Tactical Fighter Squadron, the addition of (Day) fell. Markings consisted of a red white fin-tip with five stars and a red white air intake  Later with just MASS on the fin-tip.

F-84F

In March 1964, the Sabres were exchanged for the Republic F-84F Thunderstreak. Both MA ANG squadrons, the 101st and 131st, exchanged their inventory with the 119th and 141st TFS of the New Jersey ANG.
In approximately 1966, the aluminum color scheme was replaced by the Southeast Asia camouflage. Markings were sober with just MASS on the fin-tip.During the Vietnam conflict several MA ANG pilots went voluntarily to South East Asia.
PHOTO: F-84F 0-17079 (51-17079) MASS ANG. [Barnes, 10 October 1969, Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

F-94A/B

In 1954, the first jet was the Lockheed F-94A Starfire interceptor for all weather conditions. After the Korean war, the MA ANG received additional staff and equipment. On May 1, 1956, the 102nd Wing became the 102nd Air Defense Wing and the Guard units at Barnes fell under the newly formed 104th Fighter Group (Air Defence). The 104th FG trained often with the MA ANG colleagues from the 102nd FG (AD) at Logan Airport.

F-94B-5-LO s/n 51-5501

*Air Proving Ground at Eglin AFB, FL for tests. 
*Modified as YF-94 and refitted with six 20mm cannons. 
*1954-58: Massachusetts ANG 131st FIS. 
*1958: Salvaged at Barnes Field, MA.

[Collection Ton van Schaik]

F-100

In 1971 the in South Vietnam stationed North American F-100 Super Sabre squadrons were disbanded. The released F-100s replaced in the ANG the Sabres, Thunderstreaks and the F-100C. Also with the 131st, they received about 18 F-100Ds and 6 F-100Fs (duals) from the 35th TFW which were stationed in Phan Rang. From December 1974 the F-100s were provided with MA tail code with a red-white-red fin-tip.        

F-100D 55-3630/MA in South East Asia camouflage and with red-white-red fin-tip. [Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

F-100D 55-3634/MA in line-up at Barnes. The second one, 56-2995, flew at least 280 missions in Vietnam. Later it became a monument at Otis. Now it will be restored at Warner-Robins for the museum. [Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

At Barnes in September 1979 F-100D 53-634/MA. [©Ton van Schaik]

On final F-100F 56-3813/MA. [Collection Ton van Schaik]

At Barnes in September 1979 F-100F 56-3882/MA. [©Ton van Schaik]

A-10

From mid seventies Total Force concept was  introduced. In defense the role of the reserve units were prominent. This meant that the employability was increased and that the Reservists had access to material which was better to fit into the regular Air Force. In this context, the ANG received new equipment, including A-7D, C-130H and the A-10A from 1979. Two 102nd TFW squadrons, the 118th TFS Connecticut ANG and the 131st TFS Massachusetts ANG  received the first two squadrons of the Fairchild A-10A Thunderbolt II. The Warthogs were smoothly delivered from July 1979 and within a few months the 131st was on strength . The tail code remained MA, initially without fin-tip colors, but from 1982 with a red-black tail band with five stars. On March 16,1992, the 131st became a Fighter Squadron. On June 1,1992, the Air Combat Command replaced the TAC as Gaining Command. The two shades of green camouflage were replaced in1992 by two shades of light gray. The first Gulf War had shown that it was link operating at low altitude. The gray camouflage comply better when flying is higher. On October 1,1995, the 104th FG was upgraded to a Wing, and the 131st now fell within the newly formed 104th Operations Group. Deployments with the A-10 were numerous including those of Aug-October 1995 to Aviano, Italy, for operations over the former Yugoslavia. In 1999, a part of the unit was mobilized and flew combat missions over the former Yugoslavia. As part of a composite ANG unit the MA ANG attacked Serb troops in Kosovo. In 1996, the USAF began experimenting with Expeditionary units. An Air Force Expeditionairy is a composite unit consisting of regular, reserve and ANG personnel from various units. This unit then carries out a joint deployment. In 2003, the Expeditionairy 131st Fighter Squadron was dispatched to Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom). It flew hundreds of combat missions there.

A-10A 78-0617/MA, de fin-tip colors were added in 1982. [June 1986, Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

A-10A 78-0628/MA, since 1992 the A-10s were grey camouflaged. [Collection Marinus Dirk Tabak]

F-15

In BRAC 2005 a major reorganization of the USAF was announced. In this context, in 2007, the A-10s went to the Maryland ANG and the 131st received the F-15s of the colleagues from the 101st FS Otis AFB. This squadron had received a number of F-15C / Ds to replace the former 32nd FS CR F-15A / Bs with which it was equipped from 1993-94. In late 2007, the 131st had 18 F-15Cs and F-15D strength. The first F-15 arrived on September 8, 2007, and last A-10 departed on September 12, 2007. The Tail Code remained MA with a red fin-tip with five white stars, with above the fin-tip 104th and below it FIGHTER WING. In contrast to the other ANG Eagle squadrons which have an Air Defense tradition with for example the F-101 / F-106, the 131st has more of a tactical tradition, and therefore carry the code tail. New are the silhouettes of a Minutemen, on the circumference of the state of Massachusetts, acquired from the 101st FS. Minutemen is the name of the militiamen from the time of the American War of Independence. The first militias were formed in Massachusetts. In 2010 F-15s became available with modern radars. The 3rd Wing/AK in Alaska received the F-22 and the 390th FS/MO was disbanded. Ten F-15Cs and two F-15Ds from FY84-85 from are ex-AK. Four F-15Cs are ex-MO, three FY83 and one FY86, and arrived to strengthen the 131st. They replaced some FY78 / 79 F-15s. Some flew for some time without markings, or just with MA tail code but without tail fin-tips. Besides the air defense mission, the staff took part in various Expeditionairy missions to the Middle East as part of Operation Enduring Freedom. The F-15s from the MA ANG themselves go regularly on deployment, for example, in 2014 twice to Hawaii to participate in 'Century Aloha' and later that year to Malaysia.

On final at Leeuwarden AB during Frisian Flag 2016 F-15C 85-0118/MA. [©Volkert Jan van den Berg]

SOURCES

among others things:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McDonnell_Douglas_F-15_Eagle, CAL ANG en MA ANG

Scramble Special Edition F-15 Eagle door Jurgen van Toor.

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